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Marine Diesel Engines

Артикул: 00455679
в желания В наличии
Автор: Nigel Calder
Издательство: Adlard Coles Nautical (все книги издательства)
Место издания: London
ISBN: 978-0-7136-8266-3
Год: 2009
Переплет: Твердый переплет
Страниц: 294
Вес: 840 г
1568 P
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More than ten years have gone by since I wrote the second edition of this book. In this time, there have been significant changes in the diesel engine world. Whereas in the past such changes have occurred largely as a result of economic and competitive pressures, in recent years the motivation for change has come from what is known as "technology forcing" legislation, primarily in the form of ever-tightening emissions standards (see the Technology Forcing Legislation sidebar next page). When such legislation is first introduced, many in the industry argue that the new standards will be impossible to meet, but in fact, as each successive deadline has approached, manufacturers have invariably succeeded in exceeding the new requirements. Some will admit off the record that the legislative pressure has been good for the industry.

When first proposed, most of the tightened standards were not applicable to marine engines. But because of the relatively small size of the marine marketplace (approximately 50,000 diesel engines up to 800 horsepower worldwide each year, as opposed to millions of engines in the automotive and trucking industries), many marine diesel engines have always been adapted from other applications, and to the degree that the new standards applied to these applications, the technology found its way onto boats. From about 2004 onward, marine engines have been specifically included in both international and U.S. EPA regulations, with increasingly stringent emissions requirements being phased in over the five-year period from 2004 to 2009. This has resulted in numerous technological changes, most of which are invisible to boatowners, consisting of refinements in materials and design elements that have little impact on operating and maintenance practices. As such the changes have had, and continue to have, little practical impact on most boatowners. The two notable exceptions are electronic engine controls and common rail fuel injection.

Electronic engine controls and common rail fuel injection are different, with considerable practical implications, so I have worked them both into this new edition. Even so, it is worth noting that these technologies have typically not yet filtered down to marine diesel engines below 100 hp (76 kW), and in terms of the major players in this marketplace—Volvo Penta and Yanmar—are not likely to make their way into this horsepower range anytime soon. Thus, they can be ignored by the owners of most small auxiliary diesel engines.

The net result of this picture is that despite numerous modifications to diesel engines, as far as most boat-owners with an inboard diesel engine are concerned, there has been little change over the past ten years at the propulsion end of things. On the transmission side, things are a little different. We have seen major inroads into the sailboat market by saildrives, an innovation that replaces the conventional propeller shaft and shaft seal, and which consists of an inboard diesel engine connected to a drive leg that passes through the bottom of the boat. I look at saildrives in Chapter 8, Marine Transmissions.

Readers of earlier editions of this book will notice that many of the illustrations have been updated, and I have added a considerable number of new ones. I would particularly like to thank Jan Dahlsten at Volvo Penta and Greg Eck at Yanmar for helping me assemble this art. Scattered throughout the text are also numerous small pearls of wisdom and practical tips supplied by my readers over the years—my thanks to all of them.

Once again, it has been a pleasure to work with the crew at International Marine, especially Molly Mulhern, Janet Robbins, and Margaret Cook.

Nigel Calder

Cruising on Nada in Northern Europe, Summer 2006

См. также Дизельный двигатель + DVD на русском.







Principles of Operation

Compression Ignition

Converting Heat to Power

Expansion and Cooling

Gasoline Engines

Cost and Power-to-Weigh

Types of Diesels

Principal Engine Components


Details of Operation

Section One: The Air Supply

Volumetric Efficiency

Naturally Aspirated Engines

Superchargers and Turbochargers

Intercoolers and Aftercoolers

Section Two: Combustion

The Importance of Turbulence

Injector Spray Patterns

Techniques for Creating Turbulence

Section Three: Fuel Injection

Jerk (In-Line) Pumps

Distributor (Rotary) Pumps

Unit Injectors

Common Rail Systems


Lift Pumps

Section Four: Governors

Simple Governors

Vacuum Governors

Section Five: Electronic Engine Controls


Limping Home

Section Six: Keeping Things Cool

Raw-Water Cooling

Heat Exchanger Cooling

Keel Cooling

Wet and Dry Exhausts


Routine Maintenance: Cleanliness is Next to Godliness

Section One: Clean Air

Routine Maintenance

Section Two: Clean Fuel



Fuel Handling

Fuel Filters

Section Three: Clean Oil

The API "Donut"

Oil Changes

Changing Filters

Section Four: General Cleanliness

Clean Water

Clean Electrical Systems

A Clean Engine

Scheduled Overhauls

Section Five: Winterizing


Troubleshooting, Part One: Failure to Start

Section One: Failure to Crank

Water in the Engine

Starter Motor Does Not Crank

Inertia and Preengaged Starters

Circuit Testing

Motor and Solenoid Disassembly, Inspection, and Repair

Section Two: Failure to Fire

An Unobstructed Airflow

Achieving Ignition Temperatures

Fuel Problems


Troubleshooting, Part Two: Overheating, Smoke, Loss of Performance, and Other Problems



Loss of Performance

Oil-Related Problems

Inadequate Turbocharger Performance

Problems with Engine Instrumentation


Repair Procedures, Part One: Cooling, Exhaust, and Injection Systems

The Cooling System

Water Pumps

The Exhaust System


Fuel Injection Pumps




Repair Procedures, Part Two: Decarbonizing

Preparatory Steps

Cylinder Head Removal



Pistons and Connecting Rods

Piston Rings

Replacing Pistons and Connecting Rods

Replacing Cylinder Heads

Retiming an Engine

Accessory Equipment


Marine Transmissions

Planetary Transmissions

Two-Shaft Transmissions

Variations on a Theme

Shaft Brakes

Transmission Maintenance

Troubleshooting and Repairs


Engine Selection and Installation

Section One: Engine Selection

Matching an Engine to Its Load

How Much Horsepower Do You Need?

ВНР, SHP, and Auxiliary Equipment

Section Two: Propeller Sizing and Selection

Propeller Sizing

Propeller Selection

Section Three: Connecting the Transmission to the Propeller


Engine Alignment

Constant-Velocity Joints

Shaft Seals

Struts and Bearings

Section Four: Auxiliary Systems


Fuel Tanks



Auxiliary Equipment

Some Electrical Considerations


Postscript: Diesel-Electric Propulsion

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