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The Black Sea. Physical, Environmental and Historical Perspectives/Черное море. Физические, экологические и исторические перспективы

  • The Black Sea. Physical, Environmental and Historical Perspectives/Черное море. Физические, экологические и исторические перспективы
Артикул: 00-01023375
в желания В наличии
Автор: Emil Vespremeanu, Mariana Golumbeanu
Издательство: Springer Geography (все книги издательства)
ISBN: 978-3-319-70853-9
Год: 2018
Переплет: Мягкая обложка
Страниц: 153
1800 v
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Издание на английском языке
Abstract The Black Sea is a semi-enclosed sea component of the Mediterranean Sea (European Mediterranean or Euro-African Mediterranean) to whose main basin are linked several straits and seas: Bosphorus Strait, Marmara Sea, Dardanelles Strait and Aegean Sea. Amongst the well-defined seas of Mediterranean Sea (Ionian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea, Alboran Sea, Azov Sea, Marmara Sea) the Black Sea has the largest area, the greatest depth, the largest volume and the greatest complexity. From a geographical point of view, the Black Sea is located in the Eastern part of South-East Europe, between 40° 55? and 46° 32? North latitude and 27° 27? and 41° 42? East longitude, in a region in which the ancient stable platforms come into contract with the young mountains generated by the alpine orogeny. The geographical location of Black Sea, as presented above, determines the main climate and biotic processes as well as the main processes of interaction between sea and atmosphere. The climate of the landlocked Black Sea can be characterized generally as continental and subject to pronounced seasonal temperature variations, although climate conditions in some parts of the basin are controlled to a great extent by the shoreline relief. A steppe climate, with cold winters and hot, dry summers, is found in the northwestern part of the basin exposed to the influence of air masses from the north. The southeastern portion of the sea, sheltered by high mountains, experiences a humid subtropical climate, with abundant precipitation, warm winters, and humid summers.

Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Geographical Location of the Black Sea
1.2 Position of the Black Sea
1.3 Climate of the Black Sea Region
References
2 Brief History of the Black Sea and Scientific Research
2.1 Name and Origin
2.2 Early History of the Black Sea
2.3 Scientific Research on the Black Sea
References
3 Catchment Area of the Black Sea
3.1 General Characterizations of the Black Sea Catchment Area
3.2 Comparison with the Catchment Areas of Other European Seas
3.3 Danube Basin
3.4 Danube Delta Within the European Geopolitical Background
References
4 Geophysics of the Black Sea Basin
4.1 Geology and Geophysics of the Black Sea
4.2 Relief of the Black Sea Basin
4.3 Bosphorus Strait
4.4 The Strait of Kerch
References
5 The Aquatory of the Black Sea
5.1 Pre-quaternary Evolution of the Black Sea Aquatory
5.2 The Evolution of the Black Sea Aquatory in the Pleistocene
5.3 The Evolution of the Black Sea Aquatory in the Holocene
5.4 Oscillations of the Black Sea Level
5.5 Hydric Balance
5.6 The Temperature of the Waters
5.7 The Salinity of the Waters
5.8 The Density of the Waters
5.9 Oxygen Layers
5.10 Hydrogen Sulphide and Sulphides
5.11 Water Masses
5.12 The Currents from the Black Sea
References
6 The Sediments from the Black Sea
6.1 The Sediments on the Bottom of the Deep Basin
6.2 Sediments in the Present Day
6.3 Distribution of Sediments
References
7 Life in the Black Sea
7.1 Flora and Fauna of the Black Sea
7.2 Associations of Marine Organisms
7.3 Fishes, Birds and Mammals from the Black Sea
7.4 Layering of Benthic Associations
7.5 Geographical Origins of the Black Sea Fauna
References
8 Environmental Protection Issues
8.1 International Perspective
8.2 Human Pressure on the Black Sea
8.3 Environmental Protection of the Black Sea
References
9 Black Sea Coastal Population
9.1 Population from the Riparian States
9.2 Population and Human Settlements from the Coastal Regions
9.3 Tourism and the Black Sea
9.4 Key Harbors on the Black Sea Coast
References
10 International Cooperation in the Black Sea Basin
10.1 The Bucharest Convention
10.1.1 Cooperation under the Black Sea Commission
10.2 Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC)
10.3 EU Frameworks and Cross-Border Cooperation
Reference
11 Conclusion
11.1 Summary
11.2 The Importance of the Black Sea and Its Preservation
11.3 Recommendations
References

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